1st semester: Wednesday evening                                                                    (Min. No. 8)



This unit studies Jewish Apocalyptic Literature that provides important background for concepts found in New Testament writings. The unit focusses on the books of Daniel and 1 Enoch. It examines the historical context of the authors and how it relates to their key themes such as the origin of evil; demons and angels; the calendar; the notion that history is moving towards an end; that a Messiah will appear; that the wicked will be destroyed and the righteous rewarded, post-mortem if necessary.

PREREQUISITES: One Level 1 Biblical Studies unit


Upon successful completion of this unit, it is expected that students will be able to:

  1. demonstrate familiarity with the views of scholars as to the origins and characteristics of apocalyptic literature
  2. explain how the major themes that appear in 1 Enoch, Daniel and other texts relate to the political, social, economic and religious worlds of their time
  3. exegete passages from apocalyptic texts with the aid of scholarly commentaries
  4. evaluate the theological significance of the texts studies in this unit
  5. analyse the sources upon which the apocalyptic writers drew and the interpretive tools they used in the construction of their works (Level 3 only)


Level 2: Two 1000 word exegetical essays (40%); one 2000 word essay (60%)

Level 3: Two 1000 word exegetical essays (40%); one 2500 word essay (60%)


BIBLIOGRAPHY *set texts recommended for purchase

*Collins, J. J. Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls. London and New York: Routledge, 1997.

Collins, J. J. Daniel. Hermeneia. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 1993.

Goldingay, J. E. Daniel. WBC 30. Waco, TX: Thomas Nelson, 1989.

Helyer, L. R. Exploring Jewish Literature of the Second Temple Period: A Guide for New Testament Students. Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity, 2002.

Newsom, C. A., and B. Breed. Daniel. A Commentary. OTL. Louisville, KY: John Knox, 2014.

Nickelsburg, G. W. E., and J. C. VanderKam. 1 Enoch. Hermeneia. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2012.

Nickelsburg, G. W. E. 1 Enoch. Hermeneia. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2001.

Portier-Young, A. E., and J. J. Collins. Apocalyptic Against Empire: Theologies of Resistance in Early Judaism. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2014.

Rowland, C. The Open Heaven: A Study of Apocalyptic in Judaism and Early Christianity. London: SPCK, 1982.

Russell, D. S. The Method and Message of Jewish Apocalyptic, 200BC-AD100. London: SCM, 1964.

*Seow, C. L. Daniel. WC. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 2003.

VanderKam, J. C. Enoch and the Growth of an Apocalyptic Tradition. CBQMS. Washington, DC: Catholic Biblical Association of America, 1984.

Wright, B. G., and L. M. Wills, eds. Conflicted Boundaries in Wisdom and Apocalypticism. Atlanta, GE: SBL, 2005.