Elective unit                                                                                                          (Min. No. 8)

1st semester: Wednesday evening


This unit studies Jewish Apocalyptic Literature that provides important background for concepts found in New Testament writings. The unit focusses on the books of Daniel and 1 Enoch. It examines the historical context of the authors and how it relates to their key themes such as the origin of evil; demons and angels; the calendar; the notion that history is moving towards an end; that a Messiah will appear; that the wicked will be destroyed and the righteous rewarded, post-mortem if necessary.

PREREQUISITES: One biblical unit at undergraduate or postgraduate Level


Upon successful completion of this unit, it is expected that students will be able to:

demonstrate familiarity with the views of scholars as to the origins and characteristics of apocalyptic literature
explain how the major themes that appear in 1 Enoch, Daniel and other texts relate to the political, social, economic and religious worlds of their time
exegete passages from apocalyptic texts with the aid of scholarly commentaries
evaluate the theological significance of the texts studies in this unit
analyse the sources upon which the apocalyptic writers drew and the interpretive tools they used in the construction of their works
evaluate the similarities and differences between 1 Enoch and Daniel and assess whether they came from the same group


Two 1000 word exegetical essays (40%); one 4000 word essay (60%)

BIBLIOGRAPHY *set texts recommended for purchase

*Collins, J. J. Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls. London and New York: Routledge, 1997.

Collins, J. J. Daniel. Hermeneia Translation. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 1993.

Goldingay, J. E. Daniel. WBC 30. Waco, TX: Thomas Nelson, 1989.

Helyer, L. R. Exploring Jewish Literature of the Second Temple Period: A Guide for New Testament Students. Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity, 2002.

Newsom, C. A., and B. Breed. Daniel. A Commentary. OTL. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 2014.

Nickelsburg, G.W.E., and J.C. VanderKam. 1 Enoch. Hermeneia Translation. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2012.

Nickelsburg, G. W. E. 1 Enoch. Hermeneia Translation. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2001.

Portier-Young, A.E., and J.J. Collins. Apocalyptic Against Empire: Theologies of Resistance in Early Judaism. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2014.

Rowland, C. The Open Heaven: A Study of Apocalyptic in Judaism and Early Christianity. London: SPCK, 1982.

Russell, D. S. The Method and Message of Jewish Apocalyptic, 200BC-AD100. London: SCM, 1964.

*Seow, C. L. Daniel. WC. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 2003.

VanderKam, J. C. Enoch and the Growth of an Apocalyptic Tradition. CBQMS. Washington DC: Catholic Biblical Association of America, 1984.

Wright, B. G., and L. M. Wills, eds. Conflicted Boundaries in Wisdom and Apocalypticism. Atlanta, GE: SBL, 2005.